It is easy to account for ion formation for the alkali metals. Why do Metals lose Electrons? What do they become after they donate accept clectrons? This is to do with the electrons in the metal atoms. For example, lithium atom on donating its one valence electron to chlorine atom will result in the formation of an ionic bond and the compound formed is LiCl. Precious metals, like gold, are impervious to oxygen. In cases where an atom has three or fewer valence electrons, the atom may lose those valence electrons quite easily until what remains is a lower shell that contains an octet. Atoms that lose electrons acquire a positive charge as a result because they are left with fewer negatively charged electrons to balance the positive charges of the protons in the nucleus. A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well. Why? They then become cations. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. You can leave them lying around for millennia oxygen won't crust them up — which is why they've been the elements of choice for jewellery, coins and the odd pair of hot pants since they were first discovered. As Figure 1 illustrates, sodium (Na) only has one electron in its outer electron shell. 1. u r right. In technical terms, they've been delocalised because their 'parent' atoms can't hold onto them. Most atoms do not have eight electrons in their valence electron shell. $\ce{Na \rightarrow Na^{+} + e^{-}}$ The cation produced in this way, Na +, is called the sodium ion to distinguish it from the element. Positively charged ions are called cations. Metals usually have 1, 2 or 3 outer shell electrons (valence electrons) so it makes sense that they will lose 1 2 or 3 electrons to get that 8 from the layer inside of the outer layer instead of gain 5 6 or 7 electrons to get 8 in the current shell. The less reactive metal will become the cathode (positive electrode), as it has a weaker tendency to lose electrons. In many cases, elements that belong to the same group (vertical column) on the periodic table form ions with the same charge because they have the same number of valence electrons. Metals have been behind major human advances from the iron age to Kylie's gold hot pants. And again, the hardness comes from messing with the crystal grains. 0 0. mlk256. metals donate electrons and become cations FIGURE 2.1 An orbital model of an atom 2. During this type of bonding, electrons are transferred from metal atoms to non-metal atoms to form compounds. This doesn’t mean that any two materials rubbed together will cause electrons to move. octet just means the 8 electron structure. Why aren’t they attracted to the positive metal ions to form metal atoms? The figure shows NAD + /NADH, which is an electron carrier that is reduced (to NADH) in one reaction after which it is oxidized (to NAD +) in another reaction. The transition metals zinc … Missed the LibreFest? What will it's charge be after it donates/accepts electrons ? Source(s): honors chem. [ "article:topic", "anion", "cation", "ions", "showtoc:no" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/3/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FIntroductory_Chemistry%2FMap%253A_Introductory_Chemistry_(Tro)%2F04%253A_Atoms_and_Elements%2F4.07%253A_Ions_-_Losing_and_Gaining_Electrons, 4.6: Looking for Patterns - The Periodic Table, 4.8: Isotopes - When the Number of Neutrons Varies, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that rises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions. You only have to make one bad piece of copper art to know that, like the England cricket team, metals love nothing more than a good beating. Metals donate electrons. The attraction between the layers of positive ions and the swarm of electrons surrounding them is strong. 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