Coalescing alluvial fans—cone-shaped deposits of alluvium that run together—are formed where rivers emerge from the mountains. [158] Because of this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas. /TASS/. [230] Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time. [116] In 2017, Japan had the fifth largest diplomatic network in the world. 6. [118] The United States is a major market for Japanese exports and a major source of Japanese imports, and is committed to defending the country, with military bases in Japan. #1 of 33 Nature & Parks in Iriomote-jima. One consequence is that mountain blocks are often bounded by fault scarps and flexure slopes that descend in step formation to the adjacent lowlands. [87] According to the Environment Ministry, heavy rainfall and increasing temperatures have caused problems in the agricultural industry and elsewhere. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje (a Korean kingdom) in 552, but the development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China. [160] Japan's small agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected. [153][154] Japan has a large cooperative sector, with three of the ten largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer cooperative and the largest agricultural cooperative in the world as of 2018[update]. 21. [96], In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. They were the protectors of the Japanese people and the masters of the martial arts. There are nearly 7,000 Japanese islands. [236] Other minority religions include Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith, as well as the animist beliefs of the Ainu. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria; following international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. The reopening of the country ushered in contact with the West and a time of unprecedented change. The Japanese landscape is rugged, with more than four-fifths of the land surface consisting of mountains. Japan is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations (since 1956), the OECD, and the Group of Seven. [40] When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. [10] The characters 日本 mean "sun origin". The mountainous character of the country is the outcome of orogenic (mountain-building) forces largely during Quaternary time (roughly, the past 2.6 million years), as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of violent earthquakes, volcanic activity, and signs of change in sea levels along the coast. [318], In motorsport, Japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in series such as Formula One, MotoGP, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the IMSA SportsCar Championship. [219] The Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post–World War II baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates. [104], Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. [41] The shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyōs,[42] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868). Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter. [26] The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms. [165], Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the "largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods". The high-speed Shinkansen (bullet trains) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. [138] The Special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. [91] Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife as of 2019[update],[92] including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, the small Japanese field mouse, and the Japanese giant salamander. [16] This was followed from around 14,500 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture. [253] Approximately 60 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification, and bachelor's degrees are held by 30.4 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after South Korea. [250][249][251] As of 2017[update], Japan's public spending on education amounted to just 3.3 percent of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percent. [243], Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [313] Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a wide following. Since 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet. Approximately 430 are inhabited. [170] Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, -NTT, ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as among the largest in the world. Aomori Tokyo Shikoku (四国, literally "four provinces") is one of the five main islands of Japan.Shikoku is the second-smallest main island after Okinawa. Approximately 430 are inhabited. It is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, and extends from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. [59] In 1940, the Empire invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. In the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn. [159] This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% as of 2018[update]. Naoshima, commonly known as Japan’s art island, is a tiny island in the Seto Inland Sea, and one of our absolute favorite places in Japan. [277], Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. [330] Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country[331] and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup. [13] The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter. Osaka It has traditionally been typified by wooden or mud plaster structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. [88] The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, 41.1 °C (106.0 °F), was recorded on July 23, 2018,[89] and repeated on August 17, 2020. Ranked the second-highest country on the Human Development Index in Asia after Singapore, Japan has the world's second-highest life expectancy, though it is experiencing a decline in population. [143][144][145][146], Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP,[147] and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity as of 2019[update]. Today, 1%[232] to 1.5% of the population are Christians. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain. Hokkaido. Sanagishima (Kagawa) This is the one of several Cat Islands located in the Inland Sea, which … Kōchi, 40. [26] These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a system of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in place for half a millennium. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [127], Japan is the second-highest-ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index 2020. [265] Since the 19th century, Japan has incorporated much of Western modern architecture into construction and design. Dissected plains are common. [44] The study of Western sciences (rangaku) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki. [279] Kumi-daiko (ensemble drumming) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. 7. Japan (Japanese: 日本, Nippon [ɲippoꜜɴ] (listen) or Nihon [ɲihoꜜɴ] (listen)) is an island country in East Asia, located in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Okayama There are no sizable structural plains and peneplains (large land areas leveled by erosion), features that usually occur in more stable regions of the Earth. [53][56][57] This process accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a number of radical nationalist groups that shared a hostility to liberal democracy and a dedication to expansion in Asia. It is located in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth. [46] Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. Updates? [106] There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age,[107] with a secret ballot for all elected offices. [272][273], During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. It consists of a great string of islands in a northeast-southwest arc that stretches for approximately 1,500 miles (2,400 km) through the western North Pacific Ocean. [17] Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery. The mountains are divided into many small land blocks that are separated by lowlands or deep saddles; there is no long or continuous mountain range. [74] Japan's main import markets as of 2019[update] were China (23.5 percent), the United States (11 percent), and Australia (6.3 percent). )", 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205890.001.0001, "The Japanese Nation: It has a history of feudalism, nationalism, war and now defeat", "Devastation as Tsunami Crashes Into Japan", "Japan's emperor thanks country, prays for peace before abdication", "The development of small islands in Japan: An historical perspective", "Relationship between population density and population movement in inhabitable lands", "List of countries by population density", "Geographic Dependency of Population Distribution", "Japan 2030: Tackling climate issues is key to the next decade", "Record High in Japan as Heat Wave Grips the Region", "Japan's heat wave continues, as temperatures equal highest record", "Flora and Fauna: Diversity and regional uniqueness", "Japan – Properties Inscribed on the World Heritage List", "Japan's international cooperation for energy efficiency and conservation in Asian region", "Japan to build up to 22 new coal power plants despite climate emergency", "Japan sees extra emission cuts to 2020 goal – minister", "Japan Targets Carbon Neutrality by 2050", "Environmental Performance Review of Japan", "Japan's Parliament and other political institutions", "Japan Youth Can Make Difference with New Voting Rights: UN Envoy", "Yoshihide Suga set to become Japan's prime minister after winning LDP election", "The Anomalous Life of the Japanese Constitution", "Japan's Efforts at the United Nations (UN)", "Statistics from the Development Co-operation Report 2015", "Japan-Australia Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation", "Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation between Japan and India", "Japan and South Korea agree WW2 'comfort women' deal", "Korean TV Dramas and the Japan-Style Korean Wave", "21 years after 'Japanese invasion,' Korean pop culture stronger than ever", "Japanese Territory, Northern Territories", "Abe offers Japan's help in maintaining regional security", "Japan: Dealing with North Korea's Growing Missile Threat", "China Provocations Hasten Japan's Military Revival", "Japan's Self-Defence Forces are beginning to focus on China", "Chapter IV. 38. [291] Seafood and Japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. [285] Isagiyosa (潔さ) is a virtue of the capability of accepting death with composure. 17. Cliffs at Tōjimbō Point on the coast of the Sea of Japan (East Sea), Fukui prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Kamome Island; Ko Island (Oshima) Ōshima; Okushiri Island; Teuri Island; Rebun Island; Rishiri Island; Yagishiri Island; Islands in Sea of Japan. Fukushima, 8. 42. [228] However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. It has a population of 3.8 million (as of 2015, 3.1%).It is south of Honshu and northeast of Kyushu. 37. [311] Baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. [2] Japan has the sixth longest coastline in the world at 29,751 km (18,486 mi). [280] Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop. Nuclear power was down from 11.2 percent in 2010. [27], The Nara period (710–784) marked the emergence of a Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). Rivers are mostly torrential, and their valleys are accompanied by series of river terraces that are the result of movements in the Earth’s crust, as well as climatic and sea-level changes in Holocene times (i.e., the past 11,700 years). [240] Few children learn these languages,[241] but local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. [104] It consists of a lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. [18] From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon;[19] the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including wet-rice farming,[20] a new style of pottery,[21] and metallurgy from China and Korea. [126] Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima. Japan is a world-renowned powerhouse of animation. Japan sought to become a modern industrialized nation and pursued the acquisition of a large overseas empire, initially in Korea and China. [11], The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade. These land blocks are the result of intense faulting (movement of adjacent rock masses along a fracture) and warping (bending of the Earth’s crust); the former process is regarded as dominant. [220] As of 2019[update] over 20 percent of the population is over 65, and this is projected to rise to one in three by 2030. Shimane [94][95] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value. both of these plates are oceanic so the denser one subducts beneath the other. [106] Around 16 percent of the population were below the poverty line in 2017. Consuming fugu, a poisonous blowfish delicacy, is illegal for Japanese royalty. [255], Japan has one of the world's highest suicide rates. [65], In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. 35. Japan Wants to Disperse More F-35s Across Its Home Islands. [249] Japan is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, math and sciences with the average student scoring 529 and has one of the world's highest-educated labor forces among OECD countries. [242] The Ainu language, which is a language isolate, is moribund, with only a few native speakers remaining as of 2014[update]. ", "Radiocarbon Dates and Archaeology of the Late Pleistocene in the Japanese Islands", "Jōmon Culture (ca. [65] A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world;[65] this ended in the mid-1990s after the popping of an asset price bubble, beginning the "Lost Decade". A great civilization then developed first at Nara in the 8th century and then at Heian-kyō (now Kyōto) from the late 8th to the late 12th century. [29] Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573). [152] The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are common in the Japanese work environment. [103], Japan is a unitary state and constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited to a ceremonial role. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016. [85], The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. [301] Japanese television dramas are viewed both within Japan and internationally;[302] other popular shows are in the genres of variety shows, comedy, and news programs. [213] Zainichi Koreans,[214] Chinese,[215] Filipinos,[216] Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent,[217] and Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent are among the small minority groups in Japan. [85], In the Sea of Japan region on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall during winter. [183] However, video gaming in Japan remains a major industry. A leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round. After a century-long period of civil war, the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa shogunate, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597, international condemnation of the occupation, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, largest earthquakes in its recorded history, Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads, Agriculture, forestry, and fishing in Japan, Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Programme for International Student Assessment, has one of the world's highest suicide rates, "Official Names of Member States (UNTERM)", Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, "Population Estimates Monthly Report January 2021)", "2015 Population Census: Basic Complete Tabulation on Population and Households", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020", "You say 'Nihon,' I say 'Nippon,' or let's call the whole thing 'Japan'? Heavy emphasis is placed on education, and Japan is one of the world’s most literate countries. [29] This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged. [114] Japan is a member of the G7, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. Japan and Russia have never signed a peace treaty to end their World War II conflict. [106], Japan ranks 29th of 190 countries in the 2019 ease of doing business index. [197], As of 2017[update], 39% of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25% from coal, 23% from natural gas, 3.5% from hydropower and 1.5% from nuclear power. Japan Hopes to Find Out", "Japan Successfully Launches Lunar Explorer 'Kaguya, "Japan's transport planning at national level, natural disasters, and their interplays", "Japan's Bullet Trains Are Hitting a Speed Bump", "Japan nuclear power-free as last reactor shuts", "Nuclear power back in Japan for first time since Fukushima", "Mixed progress for Japan's nuclear plant restarts", "A Review of the Evolution of the Japanese Oil Industry, Oil Policy and its Relationship with the Middle East", "Japan's 2014 Strategic Energy Plan: A Planned Energy System Transition", "Population Estimates Monthly Report June 2019", "Japan population drops by record number to 124.8 mil. The culture of Japan is well-known around the world, including its art, cuisine, music, and popular culture, which encompasses prominent animation and video game industries. [163] Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch,[74] prompting critiques that Japan's fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna. [141][142] According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, among the member states of the UN that report statistics as of 2018[update], the incidence rates of violent crimes such as murder, abduction, sexual violence and robbery are very low in Japan. Japan's samurai warriors had a strict code of conduct. [329] The country gained the hosting rights for the official Women's Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any other nation. [284], Ishin-denshin (以心伝心) is a Japanese idiom which denotes a form of interpersonal communication through unspoken mutual understanding. 32. “ The hotel itself is reasonably priced and includes breakfast (typical Japanese selection, do not expect Western style) and the rooms are clean and of decent size. [104] Executive power is instead wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people. The Kuril Islands dispute, also known in Japan as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the four southernmost Kuril Islands.The Kuril Islands is a chain of islands that stretch between the Japanese island of Hokkaido at the southern end and the Russian … [185] It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibō) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. On one of the islands of the Pacific Ocean is the abandoned military equipment of the Japanese Army. 26. Japan is the eleventh-most populous country in the world, as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanized. [69], Japan comprises 6852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. Frequently the uplands have been overlain with volcanic ash, as in the Kantō and Tokachi plains. Japan: An Island Nation. [162], Japan ranked seventh in the world in tonnage of fish caught and captured 3,167,610 metric tons of fish in 2016, down from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous decade. [257] Japan has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the developed world. [68], The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. Complexity and contrast are the keynotes of life in Japan—a country possessing an intricate and ancient cultural tradition yet one that, since 1950, has emerged as one of the world’s most economically and technologically advanced societies. [299] Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in forms such as matcha, used in the Japanese tea ceremony. [35] The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyōs) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States"). [101] In 2020 the government of Japan announced a target of carbon-neutrality by 2050. Beginning in the 12th century, political power was held by a series of military dictators (shōgun) and feudal lords (daimyō), and enforced by a class of warrior nobility (samurai). 20. The population in the island is quite small (around 100 people) but there are more than 100 cats on the island. Because of its far-flung outlying islands, Japan has the sixth largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering 4,470,000 km2 (1,730,000 sq mi). [84] More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which triggered a large tsunami. Oki Islands; Sado Island; Todo Island; Mitsuke Island; Islands in … The popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, dates from the 16th century. [187] Japan's plans in space exploration include building a moon base and landing astronauts by 2030. [171][172], Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. [39] After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. [52][53], The early 20th century saw a period of Taishō democracy (1912–1926) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization. Mount Fuji from its northern side, Yamanashi prefecture, east-central Honshu, Japan. It now is one of the world’s foremost manufacturing countries and traders of goods and is a global financial leader. 30. it was made when two plates collided and the resultant crustal uplifting created small islands japan is located where the pacific plate collides with Philippine plate. [88] As the host and signatory of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change. Saga From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Japan has 6,852 islands. [32] In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura. [296] Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. [227] Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Shinto as its indigenous religion. There are many active and dormant volcanoes, including Mount Fuji (Fuji-san), which, at an elevation of 12,388 feet (3,776 metres), is Japan’s highest mountain. Kagoshima After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution. About 98% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities. [312] Japan's top professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. [184], The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan's national space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. [239], Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. [306][307] Japanese animated films and television series, known as anime, were largely influenced by Japanese manga and have been extensively popular in the West. Aichi, 24. Cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in the sense of embracing the transience of the world. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. [278] Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, forms an integral part of Japanese culture. Jurassic Park may be the first thing that comes to mind when you see Aogashima Island from the air - but yes, THIS IS TOKYO! Saitama Gunma [150], Japan's exports amounted to 18.5% of GDP in 2018. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. [125] South Korea's control of the Liancourt Rocks is acknowledged but not accepted as they are claimed by Japan. Match the Country with Its Hemisphere Quiz, This quiz will present you with the name of a country. 10. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. The national capital, Tokyo (Tōkyō), in east-central Honshu, is one of the world’s most populous cities. [61] Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into sexual slavery. Part of the Ring of Fire, Japan spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa.