Chandragupta II (Sanskrit: ????? Little is known about Shanku, Vetalabhatta, Kshapanaka and Ghatakarpara. Lifespan:- 117 Years 6. Its existence (and its mention of Vikramaditya) is confirmed only by adaptations in surviving works dating to the sixth century and later and testimonials by contemporary poets. One such mischief is the date of Vikramadiya, whose existence is dismissed as fiction. The Hoysalas under Vishnuvardhana began to expand their territory initially by defeating the Cholas in the famous battle of Talakad in 1116 resulting in the Hoysala annexation of Gangavadi (part of modern Southern Karnataka). , According to a legend in Ayodhya, the city was re-discovered by Vikramaditya after it was lost for centuries. Paramara Kings Among the Paramara kings, the first one reigned between Name of King Years Paramar 2710 – 2716 Kali Yuga (392 – 386 BCE) Mahamara 386 – 383 BCE A. K. Warder notes that the Satavahanas were the only notable ancient dynasty who ruled from Pratishthana. His court was adorned with famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. He was very generous and a ruler with always well-being of his subject at heart. Shiva then creates the three Tamil kings to defeat him: Vira Cholan, Ula Cheran, and Vajranga Pandiyan. In fact, Vikramaditya started the title of Chakravarti Emperor by the kings in India.  According to Alain Daniélou, the Vikramaditya in this legend refers to a Satavahana king. In fact, Vikramaditya started the title of Chakraborty Samrat by kings in India. King Vikramaditya’s Empire. , Vetala Panchavimshati and Simhasana Dvatrimsika are structurally opposite.  According to Raj Pruthi, legends surrounding this first-century king gradually became intertwined with those of later kings called "Vikramaditya" (including Chandragupta II). , The earliest uncontested mentions of Vikramaditya appear in sixth-century works: the biography of Vasubandhu by Paramartha (499–569) and Vasavadatta by Subandhu. Pandey's reasons to place Kalidasa in the first century along with the king Vikramaditya , are given in Table 1 . He earned the title Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla (lit "lord of three worlds"). In the Vetala tales, Vikramaditya is the central character of the frame story but is unconnected with the individual tales except for hearing them from the vetala. Thanks A2A. Shortly after Vikramaditya's death, Vasubandhu asked his successor, Baladitya, to organise another debate to avenge his mentor's humiliation. Oak (Historian) Glancing through some research material recently, I was pleasantly surprised to come across a reference to a king Vikramaditya inscription found in the Kaaba in Mecca proving beyond doubt that the Arabian Peninsula formed a part of his Indian Empire. He was one of the greatest rulers of Gupta dynasty. Alternative theories also exist, and Rudolf Hoernlé believed that it was Yashodharman who renamed the era Vikrama Samvat. , Jain tradition originally had four Simhasana-related stories and four vetala-related puzzle stories. He became king of India in about 380 AD and assumed his grandfather’s name and is, therefore, known as Chandra Gupta II. By 1076, despite being surrounded by enemies at home (Someshvara II) and in Vengi and Chola country (Kulothunga Chola I), Vikramaditya VI successfully defeated his elder brother and took him captive. After the Jain king Kumarapala (r. 1143–1172), it became fashionable among Jain writers to compare Kumarapala to Vikramaditya. Four days after the Hindu festival of Diwali is the Padwa or Varshapratipada, the day on which the coronation of King Vikramaditya is believed to be held. , Kalidasa is the only figure whose association with Vikramaditya is mentioned in works earlier than Jyotirvidabharana. Some of them have formulated a theory that Samudragupta was succeeded by his […] He became king of India in about 380 AD and assumed his grandfather’s name and is, therefore, known as Chandra Gupta II. He then crowned himself the Chalukya monarch and began a new era, the Vikrama Varsha. The Empire. He started the expansion of the Gupta Empire in all directions. These were the limits of Vikramaditya’s Empire. King Vikramaditya most likely was created for the same purpose, and many legends were later borne of him. (Ref: page 315 of a volume known as ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey). When Persian scholar Al-Biruni (973–1048) visited India, he learned that the Indians used five eras: Sri Harsha, Vikramaditya (57 BCE), Shaka (78 CE), Vallabha and Gupta. Vikramaditya married the courtesan and brought her to Pataliputra. Vikramaditya was her lover for some time before secretly returning to Pataliputra. Emperor Vikramaditya By Aditya Kay India, fourth century CE. According to the chronicle Vikramaditya appointed his friend, the poet Matrigupta, ruler of Kashmir. The King Vikramaditya inscription was found on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, proving beyond doubt that the Arabian Peninsula formed a part of his Indian Empire. Gorakhnath, Bhartrhari, Lomaharsana, Saunaka and other sages recited the Puranas and the Upapuranas. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the ninth century. Here is why Vikramaditya did not rule from Arabia to Indonesia (as the Indian nationalists claim): - Sources of contemporary empires (be it the Parthians, Kushans, Chinese, Romans, Sassanids) DO NOT mention an empire ruling from Arabia to Indonesia. If a limb of one of these miraculous statues was broken off and gifted to someone, the golden limb would grow back. The Empire. Vikramaditya VI (r. 1076 – 1126 CE) became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara II, a political move he made by gaining the support of Chalukya vassals during the Chola invasion of Chalukya territory. Each day, the king would approach the throne and each day, another puppet would come to life and caution the king. Although the Puranas contain genealogies of significant Indian kings, they do not mention a Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain or Pataliputra before the Gupta era. Often characterized as an ideal king, he is known for his generosity, courage, and patronage of scholars. However, many stanzas in this work are not common to its revisions and are apparent Gupta-period expansions. By P.N. All the gods except Chandra celebrated his success (a reference to the Chandravanshis, rivals of Suryavanshi clans such as the Paramaras). , In a medieval Tamil legend Vikramaditya has 32 marks on his body, a characteristic of universal emperors. The 15th-century—or later—Pañcadaṇḍachattra Prabandha (The Story of Umbrellas With Five Sticks) contains "stories of magic and witchcraft, full of wonderful adventures, in which Vikramāditya plays the rôle of a powerful magician". Here are the facts about King Vikramaditya and his Kingdom. Discover the family tree of King Chandragupta II of the Gupta Empire for free, and learn about their family history and their ancestry. Pleased with his humility, the statues finally let him ascend the throne. All these are falsehoods to undermine Hinduism and I have posted articles on each of them. Chandragupta II (or Vikramaditya) was the most celebrated king of Gupta Empire. Kindle-Shop. He had the support of the Pandya ruler of Ucchangi and Kadamba king Jayakesi II of Goa. 1. Peace reigns in the land of Magadha, under the rule of Emperor Samudragupta. By 1133 Vikrama Chola was able to re-capture Vengi from Vikramaditya VI's mild son Someshvara III. Some of them have formulated a theory that Samudragupta was succeeded by his […] This age is popularly known as the 'Golden Age of India'.  According to a Satavahana inscription, their king Gautamiputra Satakarni defeated the Shakas. In 1115 Kulothunga Chola I recalled his son Vikrama Chola who was the viceroy of Vengi to focus on affairs in Kanchi. It could be that Vikramaditya himself had this peninsula named Arvasthan if he was the first Indian monarch to …  At the end of the story, the reader learns that he was formerly Vikramaditya. , Other Jain texts contain variations of a legend about Vikramaditya's defeat at the hands of the king of Pratishthana, known as Satavahana or Shalivahana.  It was only when Vishnuvardhana turned his attention to the north, conquered Nolambavadi, marched beyond the Tungabhadra river and reached Ballary and Kummata that Vikramaditya VI saw an imminent threat to his power. He dealt firmly with the revolting Kadamba feudatory of Goa but gave his daughter Maila Devi in marriage to King Jayakeshi II. Arts, Architecture and Sculpture flourished.  Vikramaditya may also be based on several kings, legends about whom gradually coalesced into a tradition surrounding him.  By P.N. Flickr photos, groups, and tags related to the "yagachiriver" Flickr tag. After his death his descendents and Parthians controlled Iran. In a civil uprising in the Chola capital, Athirajendra was killed making way for Kulothunga Chola I to crown himself the monarch of the Chola empire. Before his return, he left five golden statues which he had received from Kubera at the courtesan's house. 15mm, 2.1 grams. The astronomers and other people started using this date as the beginning of a new era. , There was a rebellion by the emperor's younger brother Jayasimha, the viceroy of Banavasi, around c.1080-1082 which was quelled and the rebel pardoned. When Bhoja tries to ascend the throne, one apsara comes to life and tells him to ascend the throne only if he is as magnanimous as Vikramaditya (as revealed by her tale). There is a difference of 135 years between the beginning of the two eras, and Vikramaditya and Shalivahana could not have lived simultaneously. Kshemendra's Brihatkathamanjari and Somadeva's 11th-century Kathasaritsagara, both adaptations of Brihatkatha, contain a number of legends about Vikramaditya. He then entered Pratishthana in disguise and won over a courtesan.  Although the Gupta kings ruled from Pataliputra, Ayodhya was within their domain. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction . , According to Ananta's 12th-century heroic poem, Vira-Charitra (or Viracharita), Shalivahana (or Satavahana) defeated and killed Vikramaditya and ruled from Pratishthana.  According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Chandragupta's victory against the Shakas was transposed to a fictional character who is credited with establishing the Vikrama Samvat era. Shalivahana's associate, Shudraka, later allied with Vikramaditya's successors and defeated Shalivahana's descendants. Vikramaditya later arrived from Pratishthana, defeated the Shakas, and began the Vikrama Samvat era to commemorate his victory. According to D. C. Sircar, Chandragupta II may have defeated the Shaka invaders of Ujjain and made his son, Govindagupta, a viceroy there. Adity Kay: Emperor Vikramaditya - Sprache: Englisch. Of the king he wrote "A King like Vikramarka is neither to be seen nor heard of". The emperor also married three other women (Gunavati, Chandravati and Madanasundari) and Kalingasena, the princess of Kalinga.  The Khambat and Sangli plates of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda IV use the epithet "Sahasanka", which has also been applied to Vikramaditya, for Chandragupta II. Vikramaditya began a campaign to conquer a number of kingdoms and subdued vetalas, rakshasas and other demons. , Several works by Jain authors contain legends about Vikramaditya, including:, Few references to Vikramaditya exist in Jain literature before the mid-12th century, although Ujjain appears frequently. Vikramaditya VI (1076 – 1126 CE) became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara II.Vikramaditya's reign is marked by the start of the Chalukya-Vikrama era.Vikramaditya VI was the greatest of the Western Chalukya kings and had the longest reign in the dynasty.  According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana confused the legendary Vikramaditya with the Vardhana Emperor Harshavardhana (c. 606 – c. 47 CE); Madhusudana's 17th-century Bhavabodhini similarly confuses the two kings, and mentions that Harsha, the author of Ratnavali, had his capital at Ujjain. , There is no historical evidence indicating that the nine scholars were contemporary figures or proteges of the same king. , The Jain author Hemachandra names Vikramaditya as one of four learned kings; the other three are Shalivahana, Bhoja and Munja.  Legends surrounding Vikramaditya are contradictory, border on the fantastic and are inconsistent with historical facts; no epigraphic, numismatic or literary evidence suggests the existence of a king with the name (or title) of Vikramaditya around the first century BCE. Vikramaditya II (reigned 733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Badami Chalukya throne following the death of his father. Enamoured by its appearance, the king had it polished and set up in his court. Encouraged by the Hoysala success against the Cholas at Talakad and utilising the vacuum in the leadership in Vengi, Vikramaditya VI sent his famous general Anantapala to invade Vengi which was duly conquered and came under his rule from 1118 to 1124. By the end of the 13th century, legends featuring Vikramaditya as a Jain emperor began surfacing. He rewarded his younger brother Jayasimhavarma who was loyal to him, with the viceroyalty of Lata in the southern Gujarat . He drove away the Sakas to Bactria. Chandragupta II (or Vikramaditya) was the most celebrated king of Gupta Empire. Chandragupta II later adopted the title of Vikramaditya after defeating the Shakas. Although Kalidasa's lifetime is debated, most historians place him around the fifth century; Varahamihira is known to have lived in the sixth century. eBook Shop: Emperor Vikramaditya Hachette India von Adity Kay als Download.  The real threat, however, was from the Hoysala dynasty who rose to prominence from the Malnad region in modern Karnataka. Chandragupta II was the son of Samudragupta. ; chandragupta vikramaditya) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. Chandragupta II was the son of Samudragupta. One of his queens, Chandala Devi, a princess from the Shilahara ruling family of Karad was called Abhinava Saraswati for her skills as an artist. According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the name of the Malava era was changed to Vikramaditya by Yashodharman. Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) – The Most Celebrated King of Gupta Empire. Under his rule, Gupta empire reached to peaks. "Vikramaditya" was a common title adopted by several Indian kings, and the Vikramaditya legends may be embellished accounts of different kings (particularly Chandragupta II). He offers to cut his body in eight places (for the eight Bhairavas), and offers his head to the goddess. But this went against the designs of Kulottunga Chola I who had plans of his own. The Hoysala kings Vinayaditya, Ereyanga and Veera Ballala I had maintained cordial relations with Vikramaditya VI. In the ensuing conflict of 1076, Vikramaditya VI emerged victorious and proclaimed himself king of the Chalukya empire. Simhasana Dvatrimsika (popularly known as Singhasan Battisi) contains 32 folktales about Vikramaditya. Other scholars believe that Vikramaditya is a mythical character, since several legends about him are fantastic in nature. "द्वात्रींशत्पुत्तलिका: Sinhasan Battisi", "Sarma, KV (1977). Chandragupta II was a conqueror like his father Samudragupta. This table also has this author's opinion in the third column where this author does not think that either Kalidasa or the king Vikramaditya lived in the first century BC. Chandragupta II (Gupta script: Cha-ndra-gu-pta, r. c. 380 – c. 415 CE), also known by his title Vikramaditya, was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta Empire in northern India. Shiva's wife, Parvati, created a vetala to protect Vikramaditya and instruct him with riddles (a reference to Baital Pachisi legends). Gold coins of the Kidarite Hūṇa Kings of Kashmir - 404 Tuysina/ Tujina (I or II? Vikramaditya defeated the Shakas of Arabia and incorporated that part to his empire. Vikramaditya: The Indian King- 1 st Century BCE Sl-2 Now, let’s have a look of the empires of so called Hindu King in vedic era(1 st century BCE), from where we can chase the modern history to understand the untold stories. , Many legends, particularly Jain legends, associate Vikramaditya with Shalivahana of Pratishthana (another legendary king). By 102 AD descendents of Vikramaditya lost control over Iran and Parthians established there empire in Iran and Babylon.  His rule saw prolific temple building activity. In 2014, another adaptation was aired on Sony Pal.. The Gupta emperor Skandagupta, who compared himself to Rama and was also known as Vikramaditya, moved his capital to Saketa and renamed it Ayodhya after the legendary city in the Ramayana.  The early Jain works do not mention Vikramaditya and the navaratnas have no historical basis as the nine scholars do not appear to have been contemporary figures. He defeats Vikramaditya, and begins persecuting worshipers of Shiva and Vishnu. , Since there was a difference of over 130 years between the Vikramaditya era and the Shaka era, Al-Biruni concluded that their founders were two kings with the same name. The Aulikaras used the Malava era (later known as Vikrama Samvat) in their inscriptions. He was the greatest of the Western Chalukya kings and had the … After a flawless reign, he ascended to heaven. Dynasty:- Parmar 2. Their Chaudadanapura inscription alludes to Vikramaditya ruling from Ujjain, and several Gutta kings were named Vikramaditya. , Book 18 (Vishamashila) contains another legend told by Naravahanadatta to an assembly of hermits in the ashram of a sage, Kashyapa.  According to V. V. Mirashi, who dates the work to the 12th century, it could not have been composed by Kalidasa because it contains grammatical errors. He invaded and captured Kanchi in 1085 and held it for a few years. Vikramaditya cannot be based on Chandragupta II, since the Gupta capital was at Pataliputra (not Ujjain). Jetzt eBook herunterladen & bequem mit Ihrem Tablet oder eBook Reader lesen. According to Vasundhara Filliozat, the Guttas confused Vikramaditya with Chandragupta II; however, D. C. Sircar sees this as further proof that Vikramaditya was based on Chandragupta II.  Merutunga's Vicarasreni places his victory at Ujjain in 57 BCE, and hints that his four successors ruled from 3 to 78 CE. New alliances are made every day, trade and the arts flourish, and Chandra - the young prince - leads his father's horse across the length of Bharatvarsha as a part of the Ashwamedha yagna, cementing the emperor's influence. Vikramaditya (77 BC-15 CE) (NOT CHANDRAGUPTA VIKRAMADITYA) was India's first Chakravarti emperor whose empire was spread to Arab, Europe, Rome. Vikramaditya(विक्रमादित्य) was a legendary 1st century BCE Emperor of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. Vikramaditya is featured in hundreds of traditional Indian stories, including those in Baital Pachisi and Singhasan Battisi. Still others believe that he was a legendary character based on an historical king, identified as Chandragupta II, Gautamiputra Satakarni or Yashodharman. … It is a collection of 25 stories in which the king tries to capture and hold a vetala who tells a puzzling tale which ends with a question. Vikramodaya is a series of verse tales in which the emperor appears as a wise parrot; a similar series is found in the Jain text, Pārśvanāthacaritra.  Vikramaditya's reign is marked with the abolishment of the Saka era and the start of the Chalukya-Vikrama era.  Five primary recensions of the Sanskrit version, Simhasana-dvatrimsika, are dated to the 13th and 14th centuries. The Gupta Empire is the fourth largest empire of India in terms of area conquered ( 3.5 million sq km). Sen estimates at his peak Vikramaditya VI controlled a vast empire stretching from the Tumkur district and Cuddapah in the south to the Narmada river in the north, and up to the Khammam district and the Godavari district in the east and south-east. Later texts, such as the Sanskrit Vetala-Vikramaditya-Katha and the modern vernacular versions, identify the king as Vikramaditya of Ujjain. The Krita era, which later came to be known as Vikrama Samvat, marked this victory. , According to the Bhavishya Purana, when the world was degraded by non-Vedic faiths, Shiva sent Vikramaditya to earth and established a throne decorated with 32 designs for him (a reference to Simhasana Dvatrimsika). Konto und Listen Warenrücksendungen und Bestellungen. According to popular tradition, Vikramaditya began the Vikrama Samvat … The King Vikramaditya inscription was found on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, proving beyond doubt that the Arabian Peninsula formed a part of his Indian Empire. They started India's year calculation system , which we call Vikrami Samvat. Vikramaditya was born on 102 BC and died on 15 AD. , There were 18 kingdoms in Vikramaditya's empire of Bharatavarsha (India). , Critics of this theory say that Gatha Saptashati shows clear signs of Gupta-era interpolation. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. In this version, that king is named Narasimha (not Shalivahana) and Vikramaditya's capital is Pataliputra (not Ujjain). Although the frame story of the Throne Tales is set long after Vikramaditya's death, those tales describe his life and deeds.  Book 18 of the Kathasaritsagara describes Vikramaditya as a son of Mahendraditya of Ujjain. Vikramaditya continued his enmity with Narasimhavarman's son and successor Mahendravarman II , and later with his son Paramesvaravarman I . According to the legend, Vikramaditya was an adversary of Narasimha who invaded Dakshinapatha and besieged Pratishthana; he was defeated and forced to retreat. Vikramaditya means "the sun of valour" (vikrama means "valour" and aditya means "sun"). Guided by Prayaga, Vikramaditya marked the place but then forgot where it was. ... "Chandragupta Vikramaditya, King of Kings, and a devotee of Vishnu", around Garuda, the mythic eagle and dynastic symbol of the Guptas. At Kalaka's insistence, the Shakas invaded Ujjain and made Gardabhilla their prisoner. Sinha in George E. Somers (1977), p.214, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vikramaditya_VI&oldid=998215555, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 09:45. The next day after the Hindu festival Diwali is called Padwa or Varshapratipada, which marks the coronation of King Vikramaditya. Some legends describe him as a liberator of India from mlechchha invaders; the invaders are identified as Shakas in most, and the king is known by the epithet Shakari (IAST: Śakāri; "enemy of the Shakas"). , The Brihatkathamanjari contains similar legends, with some variations; Vikramaditya's general Vikramashakti defeated a number of mlechchhas, including Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Barbaras, Tusharas and Persians. “In the Rajatarangini Kalhana mentions that Vikramaditya, the emperor of India, whose capital was Ujjain sent Metrigupta to be the ruler of Kashmir, which was included in the empire of the former… King Vikramadiya efernce in Bhavishya Purana. (eBook epub) - bei eBook.de. , Several Vikramaditya stories appear in the Amar Chitra Katha comic-book series. Before his death, Manoratha wrote to his disciple Vasubandhu about the futility of debating biased, ignorant people. Many describe him as a universal ruler, with his capital at Ujjain. Vikramaditya VI (1076 – 1126 CE) became the Western Chalukya King after deposing his elder brother Someshvara II.Vikramaditya's reign is marked by the start of the Chalukya-Vikrama era.Vikramaditya VI was the greatest of the Western Chalukya kings and had the longest reign in the dynasty. According to the legend, Satavahana was the child of the Nāga (serpent) chief Shesha and a Brahmin widow who lived in the home of a potter. Queen Kethala Devi administered the Siruguppa region and Savala Devi was in charge of an Agrahara in Naregal. This leads to 32 attempts by Bhoja to ascend the throne, with 32 tales of Vikramaditya's virtue; after each, Bhoja acknowledges his inferiority. , Paramara-era legends associate the Paramara rulers with legendary kings, in order to enhance the Paramara imperial claims. They ultimately defeat Shalivahana in the year 1443 (of an uncertain calendar era, possibly from the beginning of Kali Yuga). Kulothunga expelled the Vengi ruler Vijayaditya. His empire controlled many parts of Modern day China, Entire Middle East and Many Parts of South East Asia. One of Gautamiputra Satakarni's epithets was vara-varana-vikrama-charu-vikrama. A Brahmin in need of Alchemic quicksilver tells him that it can be obtained if the emperor offers his head to the goddess Kamakshi of Kanchipuram. Chandragupta II was a conqueror like his father Samudragupta. According to the legend, Indra and other devas told Shiva that the slain asuras were reborn as mlechchhas. This sudden change in diplomatic relations practically bifurcated the Chalukya kingdom into two halves, giving Vikramaditya VI independent rule over the southern half (Gangavadi). The first legend mentions Vikramaditya's rivalry with the king of Pratishthana. He was the greatest of the Western Chalukya kings and had the longest reign in the dynasty. Conquer a number of kingdoms and subdued vetalas, rakshasas and other sages recited Puranas. 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