Though amendments to the penal code introduced harsher penalties against female genital mutilation (FGM) in August 2016, application of the law is still flawed. Given these forms of change and stasis, where is Egypt heading? Egypt. Poverty rates in Egypt have increased over the past 15 years to reach 27.8 per cent in 2015, a report published by UNICEF last month has shown. In September 2018 alone, a Cairo Criminal Court handed down 75 death sentences, in a mass trial, stemming from the Raba’ dispersal events in August 2013. In Egypt, waste and lack of proper management of it pose serious health and environmental problems for the country and its population. A law signed in August of 2018 tightened government control of the internet, putting thousands of social media accounts under government surveillance.10 Al-Sisi has relied on external actors, including Gulf states, to support his increasingly authoritarian policies. From an institutional perspective, Egypt remains an autocracy with a political regime undergirded by a powerful, economically-influential military. Factbook > Countries > Egypt > Geography. In February, the European Parliament adopted a strongly-worded resolution against Egypt’s use of death penalty, which also criticized the country’s crackdown on human rights. The government continued to silence critics through arrests and unfair prosecutions of journalists and bloggers, and the parliament issued severely restrictive laws that further curtail freedom of speech and access to information. Because health workers frequently used unclean needles for schistosomiasis treatment, at least 10 percent of Egypt’s population came to be infected with Hepatitis C.44 In addition, an estimated 150,000 Egyptians are newly infected every year, and each infected Egyptian typically passes the disease on to three others.45. On September 29, a criminal court sentenced Fathy to two years’ imprisonment for “publishing false news,” as well as a fine of 10,000 Egyptian pounds (US$560) for making “public insults.” She continues to face charges in a separate case on trumped-up allegations of belonging to a terrorist organization. Egypt’s 2014 Demographic and Health Survey recorded a globally unprecedented 17 percent increase in the country’s total fertility rate since 2008. The opinions expressed on this website are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Hoover Institution or Stanford University. … Egypt Economic Outlook. More. The restrictions caused a severe shortage of food, cooking gas, and other essential commercial goods in March and April. Egyptian authorities have been using counterterrorism and state-of-emergency laws and courts to unjustly prosecute bloggers, activists, and critics for their peaceful criticism. Energy in Egypt: Background and Issues American Security Project The Egyptian government is making serious efforts to bring more investment into its oil and gas sector while seeking to diversify Egypt’s sources of energy. Although Egypt is a lower-middle income country, it is one that has been impacted tremendously by new technologies, especially since its youthful population has been very willing to take up new technological developments. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice, Human Rights Watch is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit registered in the US under EIN: 13-2875808, Violence and Discrimination against Women, Girls, and LGBT People, As China’s Grip Tightens, Global Institutions Gasp, You Should Be Worrying about the Woman Shortage, carried out a series of arbitrary arrests, number of death sentences in the world in 2017, Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (CIHRS), allowed for conditionally legalizing a small, The rights group Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR) documented, in the view of trade unionists and labor activists. Egyptians, both rich and poor, enjoy sweet beverages including sugared tea and soft drinks. Militants also used improvised landmines that struck civilians on several occasions. There is limited public information on the implementation of Egypt’s 2016 law on combating “irregular” immigration. In 2017-2018, Egypt achieved substantial progress in fighting the endemic Hepatitis C virus through a national health program that included treatment care and new steps for systematic screening. US President Donald Trump, during al-Sisi’s September visit to New York, said that al-Sisi has done “an outstanding job” in fighting terrorism. Nowhere are these investments a bigger challenge than in the educational domain. Hundreds of news and rights organizations and political websites remain blocked in Egypt without judicial orders, including Human Rights Watch’s website. About sharing. Parallel to the obesity epidemic, Egypt is also struggling with high rates of Hepatitis C infection. The Interior Ministry’s National Security Agency (NSA) continues to operate with near-absolute impunity. As Egypt’s population has increased, growth has put a strain on infrastructure. community of supporters in Supporters of al-Sisi would say that Egypt requires a “strong hand” in order for the state to consolidate political control, impose stability and improve the country’s economic growth.5 Defenders of such an approach argue that repression is the only way to avoid losing political control and that al-Sisi has been highly successful at stabilizing the country.6 Egyptians were particularly troubled by high levels of violent crime and social instability that took place in the immediate aftermath of the 2011 protest uprisings.7 Public insecurity led to a palpable increase in public anxiety as Egyptians became increasingly vulnerable to car jackings, robbery and violent crimes. Prosecutors continued to use detainee confessions despite credible allegations they were coerced through torture. Egypt has the second highest rates of female and male illiteracy and is tied for the highest rates of infant mortality. For example, a favorite, economical meal for Egyptians is koshary, a dish made of rice, macaroni, and lentils covered with tomato sauce and fried onions. Militant Islamic groups, including the Islamic State and Al-Qaeda, operate in the Sinai Peninsula, as do anti-establishment and revolutionary groups such as the Popular Resistance Movement and Harakat Sawaid Masr. Egypt hosts refugees and asylum-seekers from more than 60 countries, including Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. At time of writing, the government had yet to adopt by-laws required for implementation. Egypt - Health. However, while state officials claimed the elections were transparent and fair, results only reflected the former status quo, with the government-affiliated Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF) emerging from the process effectively in control of the unions. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn WhatsApp Telegram Share via Email. Start a dialogue and work together to make a positive change. The attack killed 305 worshippers including 27 children. Disputes over Nile River rights also have the potential to disrupt Egypt’s water resources. Egypt’s Christian community, which comprises roughly 10 percent of the population and is the largest Christian minority in the Middle East, has suffered legal and social discrimination for decades. 9 | Page Egypt – Market Entry handbook 1 The Food and Beverage Market Entry Handbook: Egypt This Handbook is intended to act as a reference for those agri-food producers planning for, or in the process of entering, the Egyptian market. A successful path forward on this issue will require continued cooperation with international pharmaceutical companies as well as increased screening and outreach. The SYPE, which examines issues from educational disparities to employment patterns to gender attitudes, is one of the largest surveys of young people in the Middle East and North Africa. In April, parliament approved constitutional amendments to lengthen the presidential term from four to six years, which would allow President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi to stay in power until 2030 if he wins another election. A North Sinai mosque was attacked in November 2017 during Friday prayers. An official statistical survey concluded that 32.5% of Egy… FAYOUM, Egypt (Reuters) - Ahmed Abd-Rabo used to get all the water he needed to feed his crops 50 km (30 miles) from Egypt’s River Nile. Egypt’s press freedom deteriorated further, ranking 161 out of 180 countries according to Reporters Without Borders. Beginning in January, the army launched the most intensive wave of home demolitions in Sinai in years. Limiting Beijing’s Influence Over Accountability and Justice, Convincing “Middle Powers” to Fight Autocrats Despite High Costs, Time to Re-Energize the “Never Again” Movement, Human Judgment and Responsibility in the Age of Technology, Helping Older People Stay Connected, and at Home, Changing the Terms of Engagement with Silicon Valley. Political instability may have led to some backsliding, however, on issues related to population control. The 2013/2014 SYPE is a nationally-representative sample of almost 11,000 young people aged 13–35. In fact, thousands of Egyptians have expatriated for political reasons, fearful of court convictions, lawsuits, attacks in the media, and the threat of physical attack.13 And the Egyptians who have left represent all walks of political life, including leftists and liberals as well as Islamists.14 The Egyptian legislature has never been a particularly effective counterweight to the executive; this is even more so the case today than in the past. in Egypt 2016 into a database using DevInfo1, yielding a comprehensive and inter-active web-based database covering all the indicators for child wellbeing in Egypt. Yet for all of the political change that has taken place, the last ten years have also witnessed important forms of continuity. In other words, the returns to education seem small since respondents with a general primary education and those with a university degree report similar levels of skill required for their jobs. Egypt continues to prosecute dozens of people based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. NOTE: 1) The information regarding Egypt on this page is re-published from the 2020 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency and other sources. Authorities have not investigated a single official or member of the security forces more than five years after the mass killings of the largely peaceful protesters in the Rab’a Square in Cairo, where supporters of former President Mohamed Morsy gathered for weeks after his ouster by the army in July 2013. In addition, about 3.6 million Egyptian children are obese, accounting for 10 percent of the country’s children. 7 January 2019. While Egypt’s Cassation Court overturned hundreds of them, it upheld others. close. In late January and February, security forces carried out a series of arbitrary arrests in an escalating crackdown against al-Sisi’s peaceful political opponents ahead of the presidential vote. Thousands of residents in the east rely on rain water. Sinai Province militants have also targeted civilians they perceive to be government collaborators or sympathizers, as well as security forces, and routinely executed their captives. As Egypt’s population has increased, growth has put a strain on infrastructure. Public Policy Economics Informal Economy in Egypt: Problems and Solutions. The Egyptian parliament had passed the law on July 5, granting the government broader powers to restrict freedom of expression, violate citizens’ privacy, and jail online activists for peaceful speech. The many challenges that Egypt faces related to demographics, the economy, and public health have the potential to become exacerbated by new developments related to the environment. This book represents a look beyond theories and analogies to examine the challenges of strategy implementation. The next day, pro-government and state-owned media outlets initiated a smear campaign against Fathy and then on May 11, authorities arrested her. Egyptian young adults make widespread use of technology with almost 90 percent using mobile phones and almost fifty percent using computers and the internet.35 While some of these advances in individual technological capability have been fueled by advances in education within Egypt, many of the gains in ability to access technology are related to personal efforts at training and expertise development. Egypt’s also passed the country’s first comprehensive law for health insurance for citizens in January and legalized the situation of some scores of churches that the government had previously not approved for building. Respondents who were not working were asked why they were unemployed. Both obesity-related chronic disease as well as lack of economic opportunity contribute to mental health disorders that could affect Egypt’s social and political stability. This Handbook provides step-by-step guides on entering the The security forces have committed widespread abuses during the protracted campaign including … Yet restrictions on freedom of religion remain largely in place. and infant mortality – are considerably higher confirming the tendency for human problems to cluster. In addition to using the exceptional State Security Courts, for which court decisions cannot be appealed, authorities continue to prosecute thousands of civilians before military courts. Join the Hoover Institution’s Interestingly, the skill required for these jobs did not vary significantly across respondents with vastly different education levels. Domestic … Private investment is picking up and net exports are improving. Another series of arrests launched in August included former ambassador Ma’soum Marzouk, who called for a public referendum on whether al-Sisi should resign. George Pratt Shultz is the Thomas W. and Susan B. Ford Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution. Egypt is a lower-middle income country with an economy that blends aspects of a market economy with state planning and centralization. A February 2019 train accident at Cairo’s main station killed 25 people and pointed to the vulnerabilities associated with transportation infrastructure. Egypt’s economic growth has been robust, averaging 5.3 percent in FY2017/18; a rate that was sustained through Q1-FY2018/19, driven by an expansion in the gas extractives, tourism, manufacturing, construction and ICT sectors. Egypt’s international allies continue to support Egypt’s government and rarely offer public criticism. Egypt remains one of the worst jailers of journalists in the world with roughly 20 journalists behind bars. In May, the European Union spokesperson decried the wave of arrest of human rights defenders in the country. On the jobs front, there is no clear route forward. Lisa Blaydes is a professor of political science at Stanford University and a senior fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies. These health problems include the world’s highest obesity rates in addition to the highest global rates of Hepatitis C infection. Similar conditions may also be influencing recent protest movements in Algeria and Sudan, which some analysts view as a continuation of the 2011 region-wide uprisings.17, Egypt’s current population is approximately 100 million and if current demographic trends continue, Egypt will have a population of 150 million by 2050.18 In addition, Egypt’s large population is youthful. In fact, Egypt implemented a set of family planning policies between the 1970s and the 2000s that successfully slowed the growth in family size. Since then, the Egyptian army has destroyed hundreds of hectares of farmland and at least 3,000 homes and commercial buildings, together with 600 buildings destroyed in January—the largest number of demolitions since the army officially began evicting Rafah city in 2014. Share page. Although he claimed enforced disappearances are not systematic in Egypt, he failed to explain why the Interior Ministry did not report the whereabouts of 500 people to families who had submitted official complaints. In December of 2018, al-Sisi went on a 20-minute televised rant, criticizing Egyptians for overeating and not walking enough.42. 0 1,722 5 minutes read. Given the stigma associated with blue collar jobs for the college educated, this is perhaps unsurprising. While we cannot know the precise cause, Egyptians were optimistic about the future for the months following the resignation of Mubarak, perhaps impacting population growth rates.23 The largest year-on-year population surge, however, was in the year after the Muslim Brotherhood came to power; some analysts have suggested that the Brotherhood may have undermined population control efforts while in office.24 Al-Sisi’s campaign against international NGOs has led foreign family planning providers to leave Egypt.25 While NGOs provided 10 percent of all contraceptives in Egypt in 1995, that figure fell to less than 1 percent in 2016; overall contraceptive availability has also declined significantly over time.26. The majority of those who were working—about 70 percent—said that their job did not require any skill at all. The 2020 fiscal budget assumes an optimistic yet attainable 6% growth rate. Important to note in this respect are differences in public expenditures on education and especially health care. The Stop Enforced Disappearance campaign has documented 1,530 cases from July 2013 to August 2018. Judicial authorities have investigated very few officers and even fewer have been prosecuted for abuses, including enforced disappearances and torture. Share. Wealthy Egyptians also enjoy fast foods, seen as a status food item. Home/Issues/ Informal Economy in Egypt: Problems and Solutions. Health. Thousands of residents in the east rely on rain water. Egypt witnessed a spike in births after the 2011 uprisings. He remains in pretrial detention despite a heart condition. Both court systems are inherently abusive and do not meet minimum due process standards. The Center for Trade Union and Workers Services, the oldest independent labor rights group in Egypt, said that the elections were marred by violations such as the exclusion from the electoral process of hundreds of candidates not aligned with the government. Authorities held in May the first trade union elections in Egypt in 12 years. Building on Samuel Huntington’s concept of a “veto” coup, scholars have argued the overthrow of Egypt’s first (and only) democratically-elected president, Mohammed Morsi, in June of 2013 constituted a “popular-participatory veto coup.”1 Concerned about Morsi’s attempts to usurp political power and damage the independence of the judiciary, liberal activists called for popular demonstrations against the president.2 Ordinary Egyptians, emboldened by the efficacy that they felt in the wake of the 2011 protest uprisings, went back to the streets to express their disapproval of the perceived power grab by Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood. A counterrevolutionary bloc of states across the Arab world—including Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE—has doubled down on authoritarianism.11, In recent years, al-Sisi has also consolidated forms of personal power, including through moves to exert more direct executive branch control over the judiciary.12 Are there any institutions that can serve as a political counterweight to al-Sisi? Prosecutions in the protracted “Case 173 0f 2011” into nongovernmental organizations’ foreign funding continued, despite calls from the United Nations, United States, and European Union to end them. Middle-class Egyptians are about 40 percent of the total population and represent those families that have made the biggest investments in education and human capital development over recent years only to lose ground from an economic perspective.41, Egypt struggles with serious population-level health problems which will increase the burden for economically-productive members of society. PMI data for September indicated the first overall increase in non-oil private sector activity in 14 months, driven by an uptick in consumer demand. In November, President al-Sisi ordered the law revised but the government did not announce a timeline for such revision. CAIRO – 1 March 2019: The Cement Industry in Egypt is one of the oldest industries, where the first cement plant was constructed in 1911, to be followed in 1927 by Egypt launching joint stock cement companies. For example, the Egyptian startup, Affectiva, uses AI to recognize human emotions with the goal of creating wearable devices for autistic children.38, Under the right circumstances, Egypt’s large, technologically-savvy working-age population could propel the country forward. Studies have suggested that about 19 million Egyptians are obese, accounting for about 35 percent of the adult population. For example, water scarcity continues to be a major issue for Egypt, which depends almost entirely on the Nile River for the country’s water resources. Any interruption to the Egypt’s agricultural food supply has the potential to be extremely destabilizing. In March of 2017, there were bread riots across Egypt with demonstrators blocking roads and clashing with security forces in poor localities in Alexandria, Kafr al-Shaykh, Minya and Assyut.59 Egypt is the world’s largest wheat importer and state-subsidized bread has long been an important part of the Egyptian diet. Economy | January 18th 2021 Siemens signs up as partner for Egyptian rail project. Authorities announced in late 2017 that they were investigating Human Rights Watch claims of police and NSA forces’ use of torture, but at time of writing, these investigations had not led to the prosecution of any alleged perpetrators. Following his arrest, a court placed Abu al-Fotouh and others on the country’s terrorism list. In one incident of sectarian violence on August 31, mobs ransacked and looted five homes in Minya’s Dimshau Hashim village, after rumors circulated that Christian villagers were planning to build a church. Millions of Egyptians contracted Hepatitis C when the Egyptian government undertook a campaign to treat schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease associated with Nile water snails. The Muslim Brotherhood was the best-organized opposition party. The Egyptian government and state media have framed this repression under the guise of combating terrorism, and al-Sisi has increasingly invoked terrorism and the country’s state of emergency law to silence peaceful activists. How can BUE expertise be capitalized upon in these megaprojects? Security forces also arrested two potential presidential candidates: former Gen. Ahmed Shafiq, whom authorities placed for weeks under de facto house arrest, and former army chief of staff, Sami Anan, who remained in prison at time of writing on trumped up charges.