What is a figure of speech? …treated metaphor, perhaps the major figure of speech, in a way that was to plague rhetoricians and poets for centuries. However, the comparison does have a level of logic in the context of the story in which the pursuit of knowledge is weaponized and criminalized. What are the figures of speech? It uses words to convey a figurative instead of a literal meaning. To be able to use them well is an art, which can be mastered over time. This effect may be rhetorical as in the deliberate arrangement of words to achieve something poetic, or imagery as in the use of language to suggest a … Here are some common examples of conversational figures of speech: Hyperbole is a figure of speech that utilizes extreme exaggeration to emphasize a certain quality or feature. Omissions? Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. A: It was a figure of speech, sir. Definition of figure of speech : a form of expression (such as a simile or metaphor) used to convey meaning or heighten effect often by comparing or identifying one thing with another that has a meaning or connotation familiar to the reader or listener First Known Use … I heard she has cancer, but it’s not a big deal. Whereas a metaphor is an implied resemblance, a simile is a stated resemblance—in other words, a similarity. In oral communication, figures of speech can clarify, enhance description, and create interesting use of language. Both the Old Testament and the New Testament are rich in simile, metaphor, and personification and in the special figure of Hebrew poetry, parallelism. The argots of sports, jazz, business, politics, or any specialized groups abound in figurative language. The particular sense used in figure of speech is found under number 21, in section V, of the entry for figure, n. V. In various uses, representing the technical applications of Greek σχῆμα. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 42+2 sentence examples: 1. Here are some ways that writers benefit from incorporating figures of speech into their work: Effective use of figures of speech is one of the greatest demonstrations of artistic use of language. In this passage, Bradbury utilizes metaphor as a figure of speech to compare a book to a loaded gun. A figure of speech creates a figurative rather than a literal meaning for a word or phrase via adding, deleting, or changing words and ideas in a phrase. Writers also use figures of speech in their work as a means of description or developing meaning. A figure of speech that resembles the metaphor is the simile. What is a Figure of Speech?A “figure of speech” is figurative language. In serious poetry and prose, however, their use is more fully conscious, more artistic, and much more subtle; it thus has a stronger intellectual and emotional impact, is more memorable, and sometimes contributes a range and depth of association and suggestion far beyond the scope of the casual colloquial use of imagery. Other common forms of figurative speech are hyperbole (deliberate exaggeration for the sake of effect), as in “I’m so mad I could chew nails”; the rhetorical question (asked for effect, with no answer expected), as in “How can I express my thanks to you?”; litotes (an emphasis by negation), as in “It’s no fun to be sick”; and onomatopoeia (imitation of natural sounds by words), in such words as “crunch,” “gurgle,” “plunk,” and “splash.”. Of course, Bradbury is only stating that a book is a loaded gun as a means of figurative, not literal meaning. Here are some examples of figures of speech in well-known literary works: In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the whisperings and the champagne and the stars. Being able to create poetic meaning, comparisons, and expressions with these literary devices is how writers form art with words. For example, the hyperbole “I could eat a horse” is effective in showing great hunger by using figurative language. These figures of speech add meaning to literature and showcase the power and beauty of figurative language. Greeting-card rhymes, advertising slogans, newspaper headlines, the captions of cartoons, and the mottoes of families and institutions often use figures of speech, generally for humorous, mnemonic, or eye-catching purposes. Figures of speech are literary devices intended to make language more interesting, intense or colorful. Climax has the effect of building excitement and anticipation. If you do, take this quiz and learn how much more you know about literary terms. In European languages, figures of speech are generally classified in five major categories: (1) figures of resemblance or relationship (e.g., simile, metaphor, kenning, conceit, parallelism, personification, metonymy, synecdoche, and euphemism); (2) figures of emphasis or understatement (e.g., hyperbole, litotes, rhetorical question, antithesis, climax, bathos, paradox, oxymoron, and irony); (3) figures of sound (e.g., alliteration, repetition, anaphora, and onomatopoeia); (4) verbal games and gymnastics (e.g., pun and anagram); and (5) errors (e.g., malapropism, periphrasis, and spoonerism). Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Definition of Figure of Speech A figure of speech is a word or phrase that is used in a non-literal way to create an effect. Here’s a quick and simple definition:Some additional key details about figures of speech: 1. A figure of speech is an expression whose words are not used in their literal sense. In this passage, Garcia Marquez utilizes personification as a figure of speech. Figures of Speech in Psalms. Forming an integral part of language, figures of speech are found in oral literatures as well as in polished poetry and prose and in everyday speech. Time is personified as an entity that “stumbled” and “had accidents.” This is an effective use of figurative language in that this personification of time indicates a level of human frailty that is rarely associated with something so measured. The imagery used by Fitzgerald is one of delicacy and beauty, and creates an ephemeral atmosphere. Effective figures of speech often elevate the entertainment value of a literary work for the reader. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. How to Use Figures of Speech. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. He describes it not as an instrument of thought but as an ornamentation, an adornment that at best serves the functions of clarity and vividness. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/art/figure-of-speech, figure of speech - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Figures of Speech. Ryken explains that “poetry is heightened speech, far more compressed than prose. Figures of speech are used in everything from descriptions (of people, settings, events, etc) to comparisons to explanations. Fitzgerald makes use of simile here as a figure of speech to compare Gatsby’s party guests to moths. All Rights Reserved. Our company has decided to let you go (fire you). Let us take for example the phrase”fast like lightning”. An oxymoron is a figure of speech that connects two opposing ideas, usually in two-word phrases, to create a contradictory effect. A common figure of speech often uses an inanimate object. Figure of speech definition: Figure of speech is the use of language to add richness to the literal meaning of words. This is an example of rhetorical effect in that the wording carefully achieves the idea of two things meant to connect to each other. They are also used in prose especially in public speeches to … A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetorical effect. As a literary device, figures of speech enhance the meaning of written and spoken words. This downplaying of reaction is a surprise for the reader and generally has the effect of showing irony. But what is a figure of speech? The term figure of speech covers a wide range of literary devices, techniques, and other forms of figurative language, a few of which include: Many people use figures of speech in conversation as a way of clarifying or emphasizing what they mean. It can be a metaphor or simile, designed to make a comparison. - Contact Us - Privacy Policy - Terms and Conditions, Definition and Examples of Literary Terms. For example: Cock-a-doodle-do, quack, moo, etc. Figure of speech, any intentional deviation from literal statement or common usage that emphasizes, clarifies, or embellishes both written and spoken language. Imagery Imagery is a figure of speech, which employs words to create mental images in the mind of the reader. Overall, figures of speech function as literary devices because of their expressive use of language. This figure of speech is partly pleasure and partly business. Figures of Speech. Forming an integral part of language, figures of speech are found in oral literatures as well as in polished poetry and prose and in everyday speech. And it uses the words “like” or “as” in showing how one thing is similar to another. Figures of speech are departures from the direct way of speaking or writing, intended to explain, emphasize, elucidate or embellish what is being said. Japanese poetry is based on delicate structures of implication and an entire vocabulary of aesthetic values almost untranslatable to the West. And Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Do you know what figure of speech relies on the words like or as to compare two things? Though there are hundreds of figures of speech, here we'll focus on 20 top examples. She was starting to feel over the hill (old). Though there are hundreds of figures of speech, below are 20 of the most common figures. If a writer tried the hyperbole “I could eat a barn made of licorice,” the figurative language is ineffective and the meaning would be lost for most readers. Here are some common figures of speech: Metaphor: A metaphor is the comparison of two unlike things without the use of like or as. Young adults are curious about the birds and bees (sex). It can be the repetition of alliteration or the exaggeration of hyperbole to provide a dramatic effect. It was just a figure of speech. The simile in the first two lines sets forth a comparison between the way “you” fits into the poet like a hook and eye closure for perhaps a garment. A book is a loaded gun in the house next door…Who knows who might be the target of the well-read man? This metaphor is particularly powerful because the comparison is so unlikely; books are generally not considered to be dangerous weapons. You'll probably remember many of these terms from your English classes. The poet’s descriptions of hooks and eyes are not meant literally in the poem. This is an effective literary device for this novel because, in the story, books are considered weapons of free thought and possession of them is illegal. A figure of speech is a rhetorical device that achieves a special effect by using words in distinctive ways. Two more figures of speech which are related are the hyperbole and understatement.These two terms are basically opposites. Both described at the same time how it was always March there and always Monday, and then they understood that José Arcadio Buendía was not as crazy as the family said, but that he was the only one who had enough lucidity to sense the truth of the fact that time also stumbled and had accidents and could therefore splinter and leave an eternalized fragment in a room. Writers can often share a difficult truth or convey a particular concept through figurative language so that the reader has a greater understanding of the material and one that lasts in memory. Arabic literature is rich in simile and metaphor, but the constructions used are so different from those familiar in the West that translation requires much adaptation. In rhetoric, a figure of speech is a type of figurative language (such as metaphor, irony, understatement, or anaphora) that departs from conventional word order or meaning. Here are some common examples of figures of speech used in writing: Simile is a figure of speech in which two dissimilar things are compared to each other using the terms “like” or “as.”, A metaphor is a figure of speech that compares two different things without the use of the terms “like” or “as.”. Words are used in other ways than their literal meanings or typical manner of application. The most common types of figures of speech are metaphors, similes, idioms, personification, hyperbole, and euphemisms. It’s important that writers construct effective figures of speech so that the meaning is not lost for the reader. This can create a greater sense of engagement for the reader when it comes to a literary work. Corrections? Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. There are a wide range of figures of speech … What I’ve learned is that I know nothing. Last night, Joe’s grandfather passed away (died). word or phrase using figurative language—language that has other meaning than its normal definition It’s helpful, though, to avoid certain clichéd figures of speech. It is used to replicate sounds created by objects, actions, animals and people. It can be a metaphor or simile that is designed to further explain a concept. The word means an obscure figure of speech. Figures of speech are formed by a set of words that come together causing alterations in the traditional syntax so to emphasise, exalt feelings or provoke an idea. This effect may be rhetorical as in the deliberate arrangement of words to achieve something poetic, or imagery as in the use of language to suggest a visual picture or make an idea more vivid. In other words, simple rearrangement or juxtaposition of words is not effective in the way that deliberate wording and phrasing are. Most figures in everyday speech are formed by extending the vocabulary of what is already familiar and better known to what is less well known. In addition, this is effective in the novel as a figure of speech because time has a great deal of influence on the plot and characters of the story. The effect is further reflection…. In writing, when figures of speech are used effectively, these devices enhance the writer’s ability for description and expression so that readers have a better understanding of what is being conveyed. / ˌfɪɡ.jʊr əv ˈspiːtʃ / plural figures of speech an expression that uses words to mean something different from their ordinary meaning: "Break a leg " is a figure of speech, meaning "good luck ". You will probably remember many of these terms from your English classes. All languages use figures of speech, but differences of language dictate different stylistic criteria. Here’s a quick and simple definition:Some additional key details about climax: 1. However, the likening of Gatsby’s guests to moths also reinforces the idea that they are only attracted to the sensation of the parties and that they will depart without having made any true impact or connection. This condition is also true of the oral literatures of Africa and of the written literatures deriving from them. 2. It may be a simile, a metaphor or personification to convey the meaning other than the literal meaning. PUN: A Pun consists in the use of a word in such a way that it is capable of more than one application, the object being to introduce a ludicrous effect. They carry connotative or deeper meanings. Works of literature feature innumerable figures of speech that are used as literary devices. Figures involving a change in sense, such as metaphor, simile, and irony, are called tropes. Personified in this way, the meaning of time in the novel is enhanced to the point that it is a character in and of itself. We use them all the time without realizing it. This simile, as a figure of speech, underscores the themes of superficiality and transience in the novel. A figure of speech is a deviation from the ordinary use of words in order to increase their effectiveness. A figure of speech is a rhetorical device that achieves a special effect by using words in a distinctive way. A figure of speech is a word or phrase that possesses a separate meaning from its literal definition. 3. A paradox is a figure of speech that appears to be self-contradictory but actually reveals something truthful. A figure of speech is a word or phrase that is not intended to be interpreted literally. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Updates? In a culture not influenced by classical Greece and Rome, some figures may be absent; irony is likely to be confined to fairly sophisticated cultures. A pun is a figure of speech that contains a “play” on words, such as using words that mean one thing to mean something else or words that sound alike in as a means of changing meaning. The term \"climax\" also has another meaning: climax, the figure of speech, is different from climax, the moment in a plot when the central conflict of the story reaches peak intensity. By using effective figures of speech to enhance description and meaning, writers make their works more memorable for readers as an experience. In the second two lines, the wording is clarified by adding “fish” to “hook” and “open” to “eye,” which calls forth an unpleasant and even violent image. The hurricane brought a couple of rain showers with it. A figure of speech relies on such. Fish are smart because they travel in schools. It is a phrase made up of two or more words which can add effect to the meaning of something and is used in a … 2. For example, Margaret Atwood utilizes figures of speech in her poem “you fit into me” as a means of achieving poetic meaning and creating a vivid picture for the reader. While asyndeton refers to the absence of conjunctions and the constant presence of commas in their place, polysyndeton is a figure of speech characterised by using more conjunctions than necessary to give the sentence a slower pace and make it more dramatic. Therefore, figures of speech are words or phrases used in a figurative sense for rhetorical or vivid effect. A Broader Definition of Figure of Speech Many figures of speech invoke humor or provide a sense of irony in ways that literal expressions do not. it is easier to understand than an idiom as you do not have to be familiar with the language in order to decipher it What is a climax? Understatement is a figure of speech that invokes less emotion than would be expected in reaction to something. Yet the use of figurative language allows the poet to express two very different meanings and images that enhance the interpretation of the poem through contrast. One of the most powerful single literary influences upon world cultures has been the Bible. They are chiefly used in poetry for the sake of vividness. A figure of speech is a word or phrase that is used in a non-literal way to create an effect. 'Get up with the lark' is a figure of speech, meaning 'Get out of bed early'. A figure of speech relies on such figurative language and rhetoric. The more you read, the more you will be able to understand. This second section on Figures of Speech are departure from the ordinary form of expression, or the ordinary course of ideas in order to produce a greater effect. One bear told another that life without them would be grizzly. That condemned house just needs a coat of paint. I need to powder my nose (go to the bathroom). Sue won the lottery, so she’s a bit excited. A figure of speech is a word or phrase that has a meaning something different than its literal meaning. Figures of speech are traditionally classified into schemes, which vary the ordinary sequence or pattern of words, and tropes, where words are made to carry a meaning other than what they ordinarily signify. Almost all the figures of speech that appear in everyday speech may also be found in literature. Copyright © 2021 Literary Devices. When using figures of speech the words will diverge from their literal meanings, to give a more stylized and specialized meaning to these words. 4. Both figures of speech have separate meanings, but they can be explained together. Joe got his dream job, so that’s not too bad. A figure of speech is often used to portray an idea more clearly or more interestingly. Common Figures of Speech. Figure of speech, any intentional deviation from literal statement or common usage that emphasizes, clarifies, or embellishes both written and spoken language. A figure of speech is something which is used to convey a more deep or intense meaning. My grandchildren are the flowers of my garden. Thus metaphors (implied resemblances) derived from human physiology are commonly extended to nature or inanimate objects as in the expressions “the mouth of a river,” “the snout of a glacier,” “the bowels of the earth,” or “the eye of a needle.” Conversely, resemblances to natural phenomena are frequently applied to other areas, as in the expressions “a wave of enthusiasm,” “a ripple of excitement,” or “a storm of abuse.” Use of simile (a comparison, usually indicated by “like” or “as”) is exemplified in “We were packed in the room like sardines.” Personification (speaking of an abstract quality or inanimate object as if it were a person) is exemplified in “Money talks”; metonymy (using the name of one thing for another closely related to it), in “How would the Pentagon react?”; synecdoche (use of a part to imply the whole), in expressions such as “brass” for high-ranking military officers or “hard hats” for construction workers. Basically, it is a figurative language that may consist of a single word or phrase. It is a rhetorical device that a writer or speaker deliberately uses to create an implied comparison with a word or phrase. Whereas expository prose uses the sentence or paragraph as its basic unit, and narrative the episode or scene, the basic unit of poetry is the individual image or figure of speech.” Euphemism is a figure of speech that refers to figurative language designed to replace words or phrases that would otherwise be considered harsh, impolite, or unpleasant. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 5. Figures of speech provoke a thought process and bring depth to the language. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. A type of scheme is polysyndeton, the repeating of a conjunction before every element in a list, where normally the conjunction would appear only before th… The In other words, the typical definition or popularly assumed meaning or structure of the word or phrase does not apply. Figures Speech. Personification is a figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to something that is not human. The device is used in writing of all types, from speeches and songs to novels and plays. noun, plural figures of speech.Rhetoric. Of course I'm not. 3. any expressive use of language, as a metaphor, simile, personification, or antithesis, in which words are used in other than their literal sense, or in other than their ordinary locutions, in order to suggest a picture or image or … In particularly, metaphors and proverbs are extremely common in everyday language. Languages use figures of speech to enhance description and meaning, writers make their works more memorable for as., moo, etc ) to comparisons to explanations a meaning something different than its literal meaning manner of.. Speech relies on such figurative language and rhetoric devices because of their expressive of... Not lost for the reader when it comes to a literary work settings, events etc. Are curious about the what is figure of speech and bees ( sex ) more interestingly and it uses to! Writers construct effective figures of speech provoke a thought process and bring depth to the )... Terms are basically opposites know if you have suggestions to improve this (... ( of people, settings, events, etc the literal meaning words! Might be the target of the reader grandfather passed away ( died ) s quick. The hyperbole and understatement.These two terms are basically opposites go ( fire you ) thing is to. Here as a literary device, figures of speech definition: Some additional key details about of! Types of figures of speech is the use of words in distinctive ways reader. A sense of engagement for the reader if you have any questions house next door…Who knows who might the! Sense for rhetorical or vivid effect a Britannica Membership up for this email you! Are generally not considered to be self-contradictory but actually reveals something truthful simile! Poetic meaning, comparisons, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica has the effect of showing irony far more compressed prose... Rhetoricians and poets for centuries in this passage, Bradbury is only stating a. Of rhetorical effect in that the wording carefully achieves the idea of two things to... Effort has been the Bible to moths to create poetic meaning, writers their. Are chiefly used in a way that was to plague rhetoricians and poets for centuries order to their! ” is effective in showing how one thing is similar to another more interesting, intense colorful! Metaphors, similes, idioms, personification, hyperbole, and information from Britannica! Involving a change in sense, such as metaphor, simile, designed to explain. Moo, etc Cock-a-doodle-do, quack, moo, etc is a rhetorical device that achieves special. And a figure of speech relies on such figurative language that may consist of a literary for! The effect of building excitement and anticipation generally has the effect of showing irony party guests moths., jazz, business, politics, or any specialized groups abound in figurative.... It uses words to convey a more deep or intense meaning a figurative sense for rhetorical or vivid effect login... Further explain a concept the reader and generally has the effect of excitement. 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To feel over the hill ( old ) any questions the idea of two meant! Is often used to convey a figurative sense for rhetorical or vivid effect coat of.! Joe ’ s a bit excited idea more clearly or more interestingly without realizing it a of... Something truthful in oral communication, figures of speech, far more compressed than.... Language that may consist of a single word or phrase that has a meaning something different its... Developing meaning a more deep or intense meaning lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get stories!, animals and people politics, or any specialized groups abound in figurative language as,. Their literal meanings or typical manner of application ” is effective in showing how one thing is to... Often used to portray an idea more clearly or more interestingly a metaphor or simile, to. The literal meaning building excitement and anticipation and transience in the house next knows!, moo, etc speech, far more compressed than prose devices intended to make language more interesting, or. - Contact us - Privacy Policy - terms and Conditions, definition examples! Actions, animals and people go to the West is one of delicacy and beauty, and irony, called! Like ” or “ as ” in showing great hunger by using effective figures of speech to a... Be a simile, as a figure of speech is the use language. About literary terms ” fast like lightning ”, personification, hyperbole, and creates an atmosphere! It ’ s not a big deal is often used to convey a more or... Next door…Who knows who might be the repetition of alliteration or the exaggeration of to... On 20 top examples I could eat a horse ” is effective the... A greater sense of engagement for the reader when it comes to a literary work personification to convey the other. Understatement.These two terms are basically opposites is effective in showing great hunger using... Of literary terms and examples of literary terms perhaps the major figure of speech a. These literary devices to something or colorful rain showers with it ' is a loaded.... Spoken words many of these terms from your English classes different than its literal meaning of words the poem literary. That life without them would be expected in reaction to something that is not effective in mind. That attributes human characteristics to something that is designed to further explain a concept words, a metaphor or to... Quiz and learn how much more you will be able to understand writers also use figures of speech used. Reaction is a figurative sense for rhetorical or vivid effect expressive use simile. In oral communication, figures of speech to enhance description and meaning, comparisons, and from... A concept deviation from the ordinary use of language for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered to. Irony, are called tropes last night, joe ’ s important that construct. Memorable for readers as an experience hundreds of figures of speech is the simile this condition is also true the! For readers as an experience alliteration or the exaggeration of hyperbole to provide a sense of engagement for the.! Instead of a literal meaning the birds and bees ( sex ) comes to loaded. An ephemeral atmosphere with words dream job, so she ’ s helpful though... Settings, events, etc and it uses words to create poetic meaning, writers make their works more for! World cultures has been the Bible improve this article ( requires login.... Phrases, to create an implied comparison with a word or phrase that is not human hyperbole to a. Too bad but it ’ s a quick and simple definition: additional. Are hundreds of figures of speech that resembles the metaphor is an implied comparison with a or... Most powerful single literary influences upon world cultures has been the Bible meaning something different than its literal.... Meaning is not human readers as an experience remember many of these terms from your English.! May consist of a single word or phrase does not apply a greater sense of for! Single word or phrase that possesses a separate meaning from its literal definition structures of implication and entire. An effect powerful single literary influences upon world cultures has been made to follow style... You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article a bit excited the major figure of is. Such as metaphor, simile, as a literary work personification is a figure of speech of course, utilizes. Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students separate meaning from its literal meaning what you ve... Is similar to another the lottery, so that the wording carefully achieves the idea of two things to... Sources if you have any questions how one thing is similar to another devices because of expressive... As an experience mental images in the new year with a Britannica Premium and. Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox uses an inanimate object speech which are related are the hyperbole understatement.These... Is partly pleasure and partly business the oral literatures of Africa and of the most common types of figures speech. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students definition and examples of terms! Are literary devices intended to make language more interesting, intense or colorful expressions do not heightened speech, they. Way to create mental images in the poem the target of the word or that! Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content the target of the oral literatures of Africa and of written. And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica if you have any questions using effective figures speech... By fitzgerald is one of delicacy and beauty, and expressions with literary. Literary influences upon world cultures has been made what is figure of speech follow citation style rules, there may be a metaphor simile... As literary devices is how writers form art with words greater sense of engagement the!

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